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Extra info for 09.Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
The difference between the value of the input pel and its quantized representation is the quantization error. The choice of the number of levels of quantization involves a tradeoff of accuracy of representation and the resulting bit rate. PCM Encoder The last step in analog to digital conversion is encoding of quantized values. The simplest type of encoding is called pulse code modulation (PCM). Video pels are represented by eight-bit PCM codewords, that is, each pel is assigned one of the 28 ϭ 256 possible values in the range of 0 to 255.
Another example is the editing of digitized signals. , rotation, dilation of pictures, or time-warp for audio) are significantly more difficult in the analog domain. Additionally, encrypting bits is a lot easier and safer than encrypting analog signals. With digital storage, the quality of the retrieved signal does not degrade in an unpredictable manner with multiple reads as it often does with analog storage. Also, with today’s database and user interface technology, a rich set of interactions is possible only with stored digi- Y Cr Cb Filter Sampler Quantizer Y PCM Cr encoder Cb Figure 3.
The parameters of the encoding are controlled in part by forward analysis. The data output from the encoder consists of some global parameters of the video frame computed by the forward analyzer and transform coefficients that have 516 DIGITAL TELEVISION Coding parameters Foward analyzer Frame delay TV camera Buffer state Encoder loop Channel buffer and formatter To transmission system Motion estimator Motion vectors (a) From transmission system Channel buffer and deformatter Decoder loop TV display Motion vectors and coding parameters Figure 8.