By H. James Birx

21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights an important themes, matters, questions, and debates any pupil acquiring a level within the box of anthropology should have mastered for effectiveness within the twenty first century. This two-volume set presents undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference resource that serves their examine wishes with extra precise info than encyclopedia entries yet in a transparent, available type, with out jargon, pointless element or density.
Key Features
- Emphasizes key curricular subject matters, making it invaluable for college students learning for time period papers, getting ready for GREs, or contemplating subject matters for a senior thesis, graduate measure, or career.
- Comprehensive, providing complete assurance of key subthemes and subfields in the self-discipline, akin to utilized anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, actual and organic anthropology, primate reports, and more.
- Offers uniform bankruptcy constitution so scholars can simply find key details, inside of those sections: creation, conception, tools, purposes, comparability, destiny instructions, precis, Bibliography & feedback for extra analyzing, and go References.
- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference on-line, supplying scholars with handy, easy accessibility to its contents. 

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Mayr, E. (2001). What evolution is. New York: Basic Books. McGrew, W. , Marchant, L. , & Toshisada, N. ). (1996). Great ape societies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Mielke, J. , Konigsberg, L. , & Relethford, J. H. (2006). Human biological variation. New York: Oxford University Press. Montagu, A. (1997). Man’s most dangerous myth: The fallacy of race. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira. Morell, V. (1995). Ancestral passions: The Leakey family and the quest for humankind’s beginnings. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Evolutionary relationships among the fossil and living primates are determined by genotypic and phenotypic similarities. However, interpretations of the evidence vary among paleoanthropologists and primatologists. One intriguing question remains: Which of the four pongids is closest to our own species? Many biological anthropologists maintain that the human animal is closest to the chimpanzee (Diamond, 1992) and bonobo. Yet, there are a few naturalists who argue that Homo sapiens is actually closest to the orangutan (Schwartz, 2005).

In the early 1890s, with incredible luck, Dubois actually did find a hominid specimen that he classified as Pithecanthropus erectus or erect ape-man (now relegated to the long Homo erectus stage of hominid evolution); it was found at the Trinil site on the island of Java. Skeletal features revealed that this fossil specimen was an early hominid dated from at least 500,000 years ago. Darwin would have been delighted with this discovery, but he himself had favored Africa as the cradle of human evolution, since the gorillas and chimpanzees (two of our closest evolutionary cousins) still inhabit this continent.

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