By Hans Ruthenberg
In early 1961 the Ho-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung (Ho-Institute for financial study) tested an "African reviews Centre" with the aid of the Fritz-Thyssen-Foundation to behavior study into the industrial and political difficulties of constructing nations, with spe cial connection with the African countries. by way of investigations into thestructure and clients of improvement within the constructing nations, the experiences Centre will goal at contributing in the direction of the production of a genuine foundation, at the foundation of which the Federal Republic's increase ment coverage might be conducted successfully. during this "age of improvement" the social and financial sciences are faced with manifold projects. In fixing those, interdisciplinary co operation will turn out positive or even crucial, if mistaken and slender decisions are to be shunned. Co-operation among scientists and institutes engaged in several branches of study will make attainable a greater und er status of the advanced sensible courting which make certain fiscal occasions and their mutations open air Western business society than might be typically accomplished via an remoted technique. clever total monetary making plans, for instance, calls for technological research simply up to an exact wisdom of social constitution or actual context. At this element the economist needs to co-operate heavily with the engineer if he needs to prevent wasting his method generally styles of development. For, "des lors que nous parions (du developpement) en quantites globales, nous ne parions de rien" (LoUIs ]OSEPH LEBRET).
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Farmers generally have ahabit of saving, and the farmers in Tanganyika are no exeeption. The most profitable investment the farmer knows is normally in cattle, both in terms of interests and social standing. Investments in cattle are regarded as the best old age insuranee. Thus, the tendeney towards continuous quantitative expansion of herds is closely bound up with tradition and eustom. Furthermore, the greater the herd, the greater the share in communal grazing. Cattle are bred not so mueh for the purpose of produeing meat and milk as of increasing the herd.
The larger wheat farmers often plough the fields of small farmers in the vicinity. The price for ploughing an acre is 40 shs. Combining costs 6-8 shs per bag or 40 shs per acre. Permanent farmhands on the wheat farms are limited to 2-4, and these are often members of the family. e. , temporary labour is taken on from among peasant farms in the neighbourhood. Some of the larger farmers are former chiefs who invested their compensation money in tractors. They first engaged in contract work, but later switched to farming on their own.
3 million goats, 141,000 pigs and 16,000 donkeys. Livestock is concentrated in those areas which are not infested by tsetse-fly. 2 million. 98 per cent of the cattle and practically all of the sheep, goats and donkeys are owned by Africans. Table 9 shows that the average household - in areas where animal husbandry is possible - keeps 4-7 head of cattle and a few sheep and goats. There is a marked differentiation in the ownership of cattle. The Veterinary Department assurnes that 25 per cent of the families own 90 per cent of all cattle.