By Frank L. Holt

To all those that witnessed his awesome conquests, from Albania to India, Alexander the nice seemed invincible. How Alexander himself promoted this appearance--how he abetted the assumption that he loved divine desire and commanded even the forces of nature opposed to his enemies--is the topic of Frank L. Holt's soaking up booklet.

Solid facts for the ''supernaturalized'' Alexander lies in a unprecedented sequence of medallions that depict the effective younger king at warfare opposed to the elephants, archers, and chariots of Rajah Porus of India on the conflict of the Hydaspes River. Recovered from Afghanistan and Iraq in sensational and infrequently perilous conditions, those historic artifacts have lengthy lively the fashionable ancient debate approximately Alexander. Holt's e-book, the 1st dedicated to the secret of those historic medallions, takes us into the historical past in their discovery and interpretation, into the knowable evidence in their manufacture and that means, and, eventually, into the king's personal psyche and his scary theology of warfare. the result's a beneficial research of Alexander heritage and fantasy, a brilliant account of numismatics, and a spellbinding investigate the age-old mechanics of megalomania.

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Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions

To all those that witnessed his notable conquests, from Albania to India, Alexander the nice seemed invincible. How Alexander himself promoted this appearance--how he abetted the idea that he loved divine want and commanded even the forces of nature opposed to his enemies--is the topic of Frank L.

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Warned that the bandits would try another ambush, the British officer and his compatriots hid in the mountains until daybreak. When Burton reached Seh Baba the next day, he made it known that he was organizing a punitive expedition. 25 Under the grim circumstances of 24. Curtis, “Franks and the Oxus Treasure,” p. 248 n. 51. I take the quotation from Kipling’s story “Kidnapped,” in Plain Tales from the Hills. 25. , Igor A Treasure / 35 1880, this satisfied all parties. The three merchants and their servant had been saved, and a substantial amount of their property restored; Captain Burton had done his duty with élan; and the thieves were neither arrested nor left empty-handed.

11–26 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996). 30. The noted economist John Maynard Keynes considered Europe’s plunder of the New World to be meager compared to Alexander’s despoliation of Persia: see his A Treatise on Money, vol. 2 (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1930), pp. 150–52, 291. 31. Frank Holt, Alexander the Great and Bactria: The Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia (Leiden: Brill, 1988). 32. 11; and Plutarch Alex. 6. 14 / Man of Mystery Macedonian military settlements that threatened the traditional politics, economy, and culture of Bactria and its environs, fresh resistance stirred under the able leadership of a native named Spitamenes.

What confounds us now is not simply the man’s military genius or the magnitude of his achievements, but the surprisingly pitiful state of our evidence about him. The details of his personality and career must be reconstructed on the basis of second- and third-hand accounts; his own records, as well as the many eyewitness histories written by his contemporaries, have all been lost. The earliest available narrative about Alexander’s reign was composed 300 years after he died; the best was written nearly two centuries after that.

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