By G. Dunn
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A number of dissimilarity measures arise, however, that have no direct counterpart in the similarity measures discussed in the previous sections, and these will be described here. 5 32 Measurement of similarity of these satisfy a set of mathematical properties which make. them particularly attractive. 3) That is, the dissimilarity between i and j is independent of the direction in which it is measured, and must be positive provided the two OTUs are not coincident. 4) That is, dij will take some non-zero value if i and j are not the same OTU.
31 (height) The size of the turtle shells could be characterized by this single variable with little loss of information since it alone accounts for some 98% of the variation of the three measurements length, width and height. 94(height) both of which appear to be measures of carapace 'shape', being comparisons of length versus width and height, and height versus length and width, respectively. The first principal component often has the characteristic of a measurement of size. Jolicoeur & Mosimann (1960) emphasize that for this interpretation to be justifted all coefficients must have the same sign, whereas those of the other components must generally have mixed signs.
F . Morrison, 1967). 1 + A2 + ... + Ap = Sl1 + S22 + ... + spp where sjj> i = 1, ... ,p are the diagonal elements of S (the covariance matrix). This may be written more concisely as p I A. 4) i= 1 If the first r. components explain a large amount of the total variance as indicated by Ii = 1 Ai/trace (S), then scores on each of these components for each OTU may be used in later analyses in place of the original characters. 5) where Xi is the vector of character scores for OTU i. 4 Examples not independent of the scale(s) of the original measurements.