By Nikk Effingham

During this enticing and wide-ranging new e-book, Nikk Effingham offers an advent to modern ontology - the examine of what exists - and its value for philosophy today.

He covers the most important issues within the box, from the ontology of holes, numbers and attainable worlds, to house, time and the ontology of fabric gadgets - for example, even if there are composite gadgets comparable to tables, chairs or perhaps you and me. whereas ranging from the fundamentals, each bankruptcy is up to date with the newest advancements within the box, introducing either longstanding theories and state-of-the-art advances. in addition to discussing the most recent concerns in ontology, Effingham additionally helpfully offers in-depth with various methodological ideas (including concept selection, Quinean ontological dedication and Meinongianism) and introduces them along an instance ontological conception that places them into practice.

This obtainable and entire creation should be crucial analyzing for upper-level undergraduate and post-graduate scholars, in addition to any reader attracted to the current kingdom of the subject.

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The whole entity doctrine: reflections on Leibniz’s positive account Set aside this latest concern, and assume a general component-style account of individuation: individuals are numerically distinct and are the very individuals they are in virtue of their components. This style of account can take two forms: things are individuated by the totality of their components, or by some of them. Early in the Disputatio Leibniz says that traditionally a principle of individuation is taken to be ‘‘either the whole-entity or less-than-whole-entity’’ (§).

The typical scholastic would be loath to assume that the essence of a thing can be analyzed in terms of members of the same ontological genus to which accidents also belong, perhaps even thinking that the explanatory relationship holding between an essence and its proper accidents will be of a sort that never holds in intra-accidental reality. ²⁰ To speak of ‘‘the substantial form’’ here in fact under-represents the extent of metaphysical proliferation by most scholastics before and after (but not including) Aquinas, for whom there were many substantial forms in living things.

The problem isn’t that this makes the putative individuator only contingently connected to the thing; after all, the mind might be the immutable and eternal mind of God. What Leibniz insists upon is not merely that the individuator be non-contingent but that it be internal to the thing itself. The latter individuality-by-negation proposal has nothing to do with Leibniz’s question, since he is seeking an internal principle of individuation. As we are reading him, Leibniz is requiring in the Disputatio what would later be expressed more explicitly – in First Truths, where he claims that whatever ²³ See note  above.

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