By Stefan Hagel
This publication endeavours to pinpoint the relatives among musical, and particularly instrumental, perform and the evolving conceptions of pitch structures. It lines the improvement of historic melodic notation from reconstructed origins, via numerous diversifications necessitated via altering musical types and newly invented tools, to its ultimate canonical shape. It therefore emerges how heavily historic harmonic thought trusted the culturally dominant tools, the lyre and the aulos. those threads are right down to overdue antiquity, whilst information recorded by way of Ptolemy enable a very transparent view. Dr Hagel discusses the textual and pictorial proof, introducing mathematical methods anyplace possible, but in addition contributes to the translation of tools within the archaeological checklist and infrequently is ready to define the final positive aspects of tools in some way attested. The booklet might be essential to all these drawn to Greek song, know-how and function tradition and the final heritage of musicology.
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Extra resources for Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History
G. e–f– g–a). Possibly Greek innovations were the other two genera, which are characterised by pykná, ‘crowdings’ of the notes at the lower end of the tetrachord. g. e–e Ĺ – f–a). The chromatic, which gained prominence among the composers of the late ﬁfth century together with extensive modulation, used semitones 34 35 Most prominently Henderson 1957: 359–67 (cf. Winnington-Ingram 1958: 244–7). Diatonic music is attested in Old Babylonian cuneiform tablets, but probably goes back at least to Sumerian music; cf.
In any case, the association of ancient keys with modern sharps and ﬂats reﬂects only one aspect of the former, whereas it obscures the internal relations between the single note signs (cf. Fortlage 1847: 136 n. 1). Moreover, a one-to-one match between ancient and modern notation cannot be achieved anyway: should be transcribed by b on systematic grounds in the mentioned keys, while one could argue for writing a in chromatic Lydian; as Hypoaeolian paramésʶ the latter rendition is scarcely avoidable.
Mus. 1137d; cf. n. 64 on p. 23 above. g. Bellermann 1847: 43–6 (“ursprüngliche diatonische Scale”); Fortlage 1847: 61 etc. ; Barbour 1960: 7; Chailley 1967 (“échelle de base”); 1979: 126 (“degrés-repère”); AGM: 262; West 1992a: 41. 28 The evolution of ancient Greek musical notation Secondly, the equation of the ‘Dorian’ mésʶ with the enharmonic ‘Lydian’ likhanós betrayed pre-Aristoxenian thinking in a rigid scheme of equally tempered quartertones. g. by attributing the diatonic interpretation to a comparatively late stage (but we shall see below, that such an assumption is not necessary); with an exclusively diatonic start, it remains a conundrum.