By Maaike Groot
This quantity explores the position of animals within the rural groups of Civitas Batavorum within the first to 3rd centuries advert. Large-scale excavations of 2 settlements and a cremation cemetery in Tiel-Passewaaij have yielded an animal bone assemblage of round 30,000 fragments, and a useful reference catalog of the specified animal deposits is integrated right here. the writer additionally investigates using animals in funerary and different rituals, in addition to the function of cattle within the neighborhood financial system and within the creation of surplus items for the Roman market.
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Extra info for Animals in Ritual and Economy in a Roman Frontier Community: Excavations in Tiel-Passewaaij (Amsterdam University Press - Amsterdam Archaeological Studies)
Translating biological events such as the fusing of long bones to absolute ages is an interpretation and not completely reliable. Also, the moment of fusion is dependent on many different factors, such as genetic background, nutrition and health. 71 Tooth eruption seems less easily influenced by health and nutrition. Another explanation is that bones of very young animals are more fragile than those of older animals, and are more likely to be lost to taphonomy. Therefore, early-fusing epiphyses will usually be underrepresented, and with them, the younger age classes.
We will decide whether these special deposits are in fact ritual deposits. Anthropological theory on ritual will help us understand the nature and meaning of special animal deposits. Little is known about rituals performed within rural settlements. This chapter will provide new information and offer some interpretation. The rituals performed in rural settlements can be seen as domestic equivalents of the Romanised rituals performed at temples such as Empel and Elst. ; Vos in prep. Chapter 4 is also concerned with rituals, but rituals of a different kind and performed in a different place.
3 . 5 w ithers height a n d the im p ro v eme n t o f li v estoc k One way of investigating the intensification of production in reply to the growing demand for meat from towns and the army is the study of changes in withers height. An increase in size in cattle is seen in rural settlements in the Roman period. Larger cattle provided more meat. This increase in size of cattle is seen as the result of Roman influence on animal husbandry. 38 This last factor is seen in the occurrence of two populations side by side: small, native cattle and large, imported cattle.