By Paul Halstead, John O'Shea

Undesirable 12 months Economics explores the function of threat and uncertainty in human economics inside an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural framework. Drawing on archaeology, anthropology, and historical and sleek heritage, the individuals diversity commonly in time and area throughout searching, farming and pastoralism, throughout old states, empires, and smooth state states. the purpose, notwithstanding, is a standard one: to examine in each one case the constitution of variability - really in regards to foodstuff provide - and assessment the diversity of responses provided through person human groups. those responses usually take advantage of numerous kinds of mobility, monetary diversification, garage, and alternate to installation neighborhood or transitority abundance as a defence opposed to scarcity. various degrees of reaction are used at diverse degrees of probability. Their good fortune is prime to human survival and their adoption has vital ramifications all through cultural behaviour.

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Extra resources for Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty (New Directions in Archaeology)

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Given the projected abundance and predictability of coastal resources, the predictable (if limited) abundance of interior resources, and the size of the social units involved, coastal populations should have relied heavily on marine mammals with limited pursuit of whales, perhaps with logistic exploitation of the interior (cf. g. ) and alternative dietary resources. These expectations fit well with the limited data available. The only coastal faunal assemblage reported for this period is dominated by small seals with lesser amounts of caribou and low frequencies of bird, dog, bearded seal, walrus, polar bear, whale and fox (Stanford 1976).

4. Continued. Site Periods occupied I Kangiguksuk Kaiyak Lake Killiktavik II Siesieaijak Creek Mitkotayluk MIS 129 MIS 162 MIS 164 XUR 125 XUR 127 Burial Lake Desperation Lake Feniak Lake Liberator Lake Swayback Lakes XHP 158 XHP 230 XHP 251 XHP 255 XHP 036 XHP 089 Betty Lake Kipmik Lake Isihuk KIR 044 KIR 045 KIR Oil Killik-Colville Kavik Mosquito Lake Atigun Murphy Lake Klo-kut MIS 218 MIS 239 MIS 241 MIS 248 XLR008 XLR005 XLR014 XHP 161 XHP 170 XHP 179 XHP 185 XLR059 XHP 074 XHP 076 XHP 089 XHP 078 XHP 079 Ha References lib III IV Hall 1971 Campbell 1968a; Hall 1975 Hall 1971 Hall 1971 Hall 1971 Davis et al 1981 Davis et al 1981 Davis et al 1981 Davis etal 1981 Davis etal 1981 Campbell 1968a; Hall 1970,1975 Irving 1962; Campbell 1968a; Hall 1970 Hall 1975 Campbell 1968a; Hall 1970,1975 Campbell 1968a; Hall 1970,1975 Davis et al.

The recovery of whale bone and baleen from most coastal sites does suggest that whaling was an important part of the seasonal round for these coastal societies, yet the scarcity of whaling gear and the absence of a specialised whaling 'kit' imply that it did not form the major economic focus of coastal societies. Seals, walrus, birds and small mammals are represented, in addition to whale, in the two reported faunal assemblages for this period (Stanford 1976; Hall 1981:5). In addition, the frequency of caribou at these two sites is relatively high; however, at Walakpa this reflects a shift in site use from a winter sealing camp to a specialised caribou-hunting camp occupied for short periods during the early autumn (Stanford 1976, Table 9).

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