By S. Amsterdamski
Polish philosophy of technology has been the beneficiary of 3 strong inventive streams of medical and philosophical idea. First and fore so much was once the Lwow-Warsaw university of Polish analytical philosophy based by means of Twardowski and endured of their a number of methods via Les niewski, Lukasiewicz, and Tarski, the nice mathematical and logical philosophers, by way of Kotarbinski, essentially the most uncommon instructor, public determine, and culturally influential thinker of the inter-war and post-war interval, and via Ajdukiewicz, the linguistic thinker who used to be intellectually sympathetic with the anti-irrationalist (as he could say), logistic and meta-theoretical inquiries of the Vienna Circle. moment used to be self sufficient and vigorous Polish Marxism, with its wonderful improvement of social examine less than Krzywicki, a social anthropologist and more youthful modern of Engels, after which after the struggle the economist Lange, the philosophers Schaff, Kolakowski, Baczko, and so on. ultimately there was quite a lot of philosophical, medical and humanistic student send which lends its quite a few features to the knowledge of either the good judgment of technological know-how and the old state of affairs of the sciences: we point out simply that groovy and humane physicist Infeld, the phenomenologist with deep epistemological curiosity Ingarden, the historian of medical rules Zawirski, the historian of philosophy and aesthetics Tatarkiewicz, and the mathematical logicians equivalent to Mostowski and Szaniawski.
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Extra info for Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science
Whenever it appears to us that we may answer this question, we are, in fact, wrong. We simply do not perceive that we are either introducing into language a normative definition of the type 'by the term science we mean this or that' or 'we shall call science this or that', or we report on a particular linguistic usage of the term and state how it was used in a particular period of time. In the first case our answer has the character of a linguistic convention. Such conventions are in common use in all the domains of knowledge whenever a clear definition is needed.
This undoubtedly is a situation which provides ample room for the abuse of this reputation. The need to separate science from doctrines which parasitically live off its reputation, is one of the prime motives inspiring the search for a clear-cut criterion of demarcation, especially by men who prize science highly, who see it as a supreme expression of human rationality. The empirical character of scientific knowledge may seem to be the feature which appears to be the most promising for the establishing of the line of demarcation.
Alexander, Manchester 1956, pp. 11-12. 26 'Dr. , pp. 12-13, and 14. 27 'Dr. , p. 20. 28 A. Koyre, From the Closed World ... , p. 276. 29 Cf. Leibniz Third Paper, ibid. 30 Cf. Voltaire, Elements de la philosophie de Newton, mis Ii la portie de tout Ie monde, Chapters I and II. 31 A. Teske, op. , p. 80. 32 P. K. J. 1965, p. 154. , p. 145. [Quoted from The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell] CHAPTER II TROUBLES WITH THE PROBLEM OF DEMARCATION Any theoretical reflection on science must, implicitly or explicitly, base itself on a more or less articulated definition of science.