By P. Chartier, G. L. Ferrero, U. M. Henius, S. Hultberg, J. Sachau, M. Wiinblad

Biomass is decided to play an expanding function within the provide of strength, either within the industrialized international and in constructing international locations, as difficulty for the nation of the worldwide atmosphere grows. the prospect for the acceleration of industrial creation has bought help from the expanding involvement of the big strength manufacturers and the transforming into political commitments of numerous eu nations. The ninth eu Bioenergy convention was once held in Copenhagen, 24-27 June 1996. unlike past occasions, extra emphasis used to be put on demonstrating bioenergy expertise available to buy. Overviews on fresh achievements in advertisement or close to advertisement actions shaped the focus of the development, yet highlights of advances in technological know-how and technological improvement have been additionally awarded, as well as papers masking environmental features of bioenergy. The complaints include 350 papers addressing the next components: basic creation of biomass; provision and construction of reliable biomass fuels; strategies for big energy vegetation; approaches for decentralized warmth and gear creation; tactics for creation of transportation fuels; marketplace, monetary and environmental features of bioenergy; and coverage measures to beat non-technical boundaries

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J. G. Koukio s (1992). Correlatin g the effect of pretreatmen t on the enzymati c hydrolysi s of straw . Biotechnol. ,39, 113-116. P. F. Christakopoulos . D. G. Macri s (1993). Effect of alkal i delignificatio n on wheat stra w saccharificatio n by Fusarium oxysporum cellulases . Biomass & Bioenergy, 4, 9-13. R. , A. Singh , K. Schuger l (1991). Fed-batc h cultur e for the direc t conversio n of cellulosic substrate s to aceti c acid ethano l bv Fusarium oxysporum. Process Biochemistry, 26,209-216.

6 28. 4 29. 1 27. 9 27. 1 26. 8 Secon d Serie s 60 0 65 0 70 0 75 0 80 0 1 1 1 1 1 27. 0 26. 0 25. 7 24. 3 24. 8 Overal l Averag e 32. 0 30. 6 28. 7 27. 3 27. 0 26. 0 25. 7 24. 3 24. O. Lim Tabl e 4. 6 11. 5 10. 3 11. 7 11. 3 11. 3 10. 3 10. 5 10. 2 12. 0 11. 5 11. 3 10. 2 10. 3 11. 0 30. 2 30. 6 29. 2 23. 2 21. 8 21. 0 17. 6 16. 8 16. 9 14. 9 16. 6 13. 7 10. 3 11. 4 10. 3 11. 8 58. 8 60. 0 60. 5 65. 1 66. 9 67. 7 72. 1 72. 7 72. 9 73. 2 71. 9 74. 5 30. 0 22. 0 17. 1 15. 1 59. 8 66. 6 72. 6 73.

Tabl e 2. 5 g/L Na C0 ; 12 bar 0 ; 200°C; 15 minutes) . 5 Tabl e 3. 5 g/L Na C0 ; 12 bar 0 ; 185°C; 15 minutes) . S. Schmidt e t al . 1514 A possibl e explanatio n for the observe d differenc e could be the differen t conten t of acetyl group s in the two differen t ra w materials . In general , the steamin g proces s is agree d to be basicall y an autohydrolysi s becaus e of the naturall y acid condition s and the influenc e of water and steam (Marchessault , 1982). , 1984). When carbonat e is adde d to the birc h wood the elevated pH condition s may reduc e the autohydrolysis , as observe d in the alkalin e wet oxidatio n and alkalin e hydrotherma l treatmen t (Tabl e 2).

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