By Biray Kolluoglu, Meltem Toksöz
In this bold inter-disciplinary learn, the authors study the relationships among the jap Mediterranean port towns and their hinterlands in addition to inland and provincial towns from many various views - political, monetary, foreign and ecological - with no prioritizing both Ottoman Anatolia, or the Ottoman Balkans, or the Arab provinces as a way to consider the japanese Mediterranean international as a coherent entire. via its penetrating research of a number of the networks that attached the ports and cities of the Mediterranean and their population in the course of the Ottoman interval, towns of the Mediterranean provides the sector as a unified and dynamic group and paves the best way for a brand new knowing of the subject.
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Extra resources for Cities of the Mediterranean: From the Ottomans to the Present Day
6 Underlying this sea change was the transformation that the world-economy underwent from the 1560s onwards, with the gradual emergence of the Baltic and the North Sea as its new centers of 26 CITIES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN gravity, or to be more precise, with the rise and consolidation of the Pax Neerlandica. The restructuring of global economic flows prompted a northbound flow of goods and spices from the Levant, mostly via Istanbul and Lwow. The importance of this development was in that the new routes bypassed the territory controlled by the merchants of Venice.
1450–1650), and the advance of marshlands, and with it fever and malaria, transformed the exploitation of low-lying lands into a risky undertaking. Judging by the accounts of travelers who sojourned in the region, coastal plains that had previously boasted commercial cultivation or were put to use as cereal lands during the expansionary sixteenth century were largely abandoned in the following two centuries. The lowlands of Cilicia, home to the relatively long-lasting and economically viable Dulgadir principality as well as to the maritime Lesser Armenia, were mostly turned into grazing fields.
The advance of swamplands was thus a region-wide phenomenon, and organized attempts to reverse it invariably occurred in the richer zones of the Mediterranean (such as the Italian Peninsula), and not in Andalusia or Cilicia. The task required large capital and infinite expenses which the financially strapped imperial bureaucracies and enterprising nobles could not afford. At the height of grain prices at the turn of the seventeenth century, the Roman countryside hence presented a landscape which stood apart from the rest of the region, with the possible exception of the Lower Languedoc, where marshy areas near Arles, Narbonne, and Fréjus were drained, albeit on a limited scale.