By Prof. Arie S. Issar, Dr. Mattanyah Zohar (auth.)

When the ?rst version of this ebook used to be released in 2004, the subsequent 12 months 2005 has occurred to were the warmest 12 months due to the fact 1880, whilst the ?rst trustworthy around the globe instrumental documents got here into existance. Claiming no li- age among the book of our booklet and the temperature checklist, but this list demonstrates the fashion of elevate within the worldwide floor temperatures in the course of thepast20years,reinforcedbyevidenceofriseofatmosphere’sand oceans’ temperatures, and elevated melting of ice and snow within the arctic and antarctic areas in addition to on mountain tops. these kinds of observations are par- leled through the rise within the volume of warmth trapping gases within the surroundings, inflicting most likely, the worldwide greenhouse impact. with a purpose to try to expect, what could be the influence of this impression at the at the ordinary and human environments of the close to East, (Figs. 1–1d) the authors followed the asserting that the prior is the most important for the longer term. the sensible end of this precept says that the buying wisdom of the impression of previous weather adjustments at the nature and human societies, could enable conclusions with reference to destiny attainable effect of weather adjustments. by way of correlating proxy facts of every kind, paleo-sea and lake degrees, paleo-hydrology, pollen pro?les, environmental isotopes in addition to archaeological and ancient records, the authors attempted to gather up to attainable of this knowledge.

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Geological Society of America, Special Paper 401:155–170 (2006). T. Kitt, Holozaene Vegetation und Klimageschichte im Einzugsgebiet des Toten Meers (Naher Osten), Ber d. Renh-Tuxen Ges. 17, Hannover pp. 85–92 (2005). 14 26 Constructing the Jigsaw Puzzle of Palaeo-Climates Fig. 3a. e. highest or lowest levels. Traces of intermediate levels have a high chance of being abraded by the water mounting or retreating to the extreme levels. As with the pollen time series, these data must also be compared with other time-series of proxy data.

E. and was followed by a severe and abrupt decline, falling to below the altitude of the shallow bottom of the southern part of the Dead Sea that thus dried up. E. e. the Iron Age and the Roman and Byzantine period. , it again fell to an extreme low level. 15 The investigations carried out on the Holocene levels of the Dead Sea by R. Bookman (Ken-Tor), Y. Enzel, A Agnon and M. E. Palynological investigations carried out on the sediments of the Dead Sea that the environmental history during the last 10K years was strongly by both climatic and human impact.

Washington, DC (1989). S. Bradley, “Palaeoclimatology. , vol. 64, Academic Press, San Diego, USA, pp. 11–46 (1999). 14 Constructing the Jigsaw Puzzle of Palaeo-Climates In brief, however, the glacial and interglacial phenomena of the Pleistocene portion of the Quaternary are due primarily to the obliquity of the Earth’s axis and variations in its orbit of the sun. 4 The time spans for these occurrences were calculated at 185,000 years, 115,000 and 70,000 years. Later investigations, based on interpretation of the isotopic composition of marine microfossils taken from sea bottom cores, confirmed Milankovitch’s general calculations, but specified the periodicity around 100,000, 41,000 and 19,000 to 23,000 years.

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