By Weiming Wu

This entire textual content at the basics of modeling move and sediment shipping in rivers treats either the actual rules and numerical equipment for numerous levels of complexity. It covers 1-D, 2-D (both intensity- and width-averaged), and 3-D types, in addition to the combination and coupling of those types. the amount features a wide choice of numerical tools for open-channel flows, equivalent to the SIMPLE(C) algorithms on staggered and non-staggered grids, the projection process, and the circulate functionality and vorticity process. the various labored examples illustrate a variety of stipulations, similar to reservoir sedimentation, channel erosion as a result of dam development, and channel widening and meandering.

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In addition, sediment concentration is sometimes given by weight or mass per unit volume of the mixture (N · m−3 or kg · m−3 ), which is obtained by γs c or ρs c. It is also given in parts per million by weight (ppm), which is equivalent to 106 c. Note that the volumetric sediment concentration c is used in this book, except where stated otherwise. 4 Sketch of the water and sediment mixture. 23) and the specific weight of the mixture is correspondingly given by γ = ρg. 24) where uf i is the i-component of water velocity, usi is the i-component of sediment velocity, and i denotes three spatial directions (= 1, 2, 3).

Some wash load in upstream channels may become bed-material load in downstream channels due to the weakening of flow strength. Some sediment particles are wash load in the main channel but may be bed-material load in flood plains. By definition, the bed-material load is the sum of bed load and suspended load. So is the wash load. However, the wash load consists of fine particles that move mainly in suspension, and thus dividing it into bed load and suspended load does not make much sense in practice.

95) where Ux and Uz are the width-averaged velocities in the x- and z-directions, defined by Eq. 93). 97) where p˜ and Tij (i, j = x, z) are the width-averaged pressure and stresses, respectively; Dij are the dispersion momentum transports due to the lateral non-uniformity of flow velocity, defined as Dxx = − ρb b2 b1 (ux − Ux )2 dy, Dxz = Dzx = − ρb b2 b1 (ux − Ux )(uz − Uz )dy, and Dzz = − ρb b12 (uz − Uz )2 dy; τxl and τzl (l = 1, 2) are the shear stresses in the x- and z-directions on the two bank surfaces; and ml are the bank slope coefficients, defined as ml = [1 + (∂bl /∂x)2 + (∂bl /∂z)2 ]1/2 .

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