By Mehrdad Kia

The Ottoman Empire was once an Islamic imperial monarchy that existed for over six hundred years. on the peak of its energy within the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it encompassed 3 continents and served because the center of worldwide interactions among the east and the west. And whereas the Empire used to be defeated after global warfare I and dissolved in 1920, the far-reaching results and impacts of the Ottoman Empire are nonetheless basically seen in trendy international cultures.Daily existence within the Ottoman Empire permits readers to achieve serious perception into the pluralistic social and cultural historical past of an empire that governed an enormous sector extending from Budapest in Hungary to Mecca in Arabia. every one bankruptcy offers an in-depth research of a selected point of everyday life within the Ottoman Empire.

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Russia was also obliged to withdraw its forces from eastern Anatolia, including the city of Kars, which it had occupied during the war. 46 The territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire was, thus, theoretically preserved and Russia’s expansion into southeast Europe contained. With Russian aggression checked, the leaders of Tanzimat could once again focus on the implementation of their reform agenda. The Crimean War had been very costly and forced the Ottoman government to apply for high interest loans that eventually undermined the economic independence of the state.

The failure of the aging and ailing Bayezid II to organize an effective response to the threat posed by the Safavids allowed one of his sons, Selim, to seize power in 1512. It was during the reign of Selim I (1512–1520) that the Ottoman Empire emerged as the most powerful state in the Middle East and North Africa. First, Selim I defeated the Safavids at the battle of Chaldiran in August 1514 and occupied the strategically important province of Azerbaijan. He then attacked and defeated the Mamluk armies, first in Syria in 1516, and then in Egypt in 1517, thus bringing the Arab lands of the Middle East, including the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina, under Ottoman rule.

The fear of opposition from conservatives, however, slowed down educational reform and forced the reformers to attach modern schools to various gov- Historical Overview 19 ernmental ministries and bureaus. 41 The introduction of modern educational institutions also suffered from a lack of adequate funding and the absence of well-trained teachers and instructors. 42 Finally, the men of Tanzimat tried to create a modern financial structure and an efficient tax collection system that would provide the central treasury with sufficient funds to support governmental reforms.

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