By Nabil R. Adam

Geographic details platforms (GIS) were experiencing a gradual and unheard of progress when it comes to normal curiosity, thought improvement, and new functions within the final decade or so. GIS is an inter-disciplinary box that brings jointly many varied components equivalent to laptop technological know-how, geography, cartography, engineering, and concrete making plans.
Database concerns in Geographic info Systems ways a number of vital themes in GIS from a database viewpoint. Database administration has a relevant position to play in so much computer-based info structures, and is predicted to have an both very important position to play in handling details in GIS in addition. present database expertise, although, makes a speciality of the alphanumeric info which are required in company functions. GIS, like many different software components, calls for the facility to address spatial in addition to alphanumeric info. This calls for new ideas in information administration, that's the crucial topic of this monograph. The monograph starts off with an outline of alternative program parts and their facts and useful standards. subsequent it addresses the subsequent themes within the context of GIS: illustration and manipulation of spatial facts, facts modeling, indexing, and question processing. destiny examine instructions are defined in all of the above themes. The final bankruptcy discusses matters which are rising as vital parts of technological ideas in GIS.
Database concerns in Geographic details Systems is acceptable as a secondary textual content for a graduate point direction on Geographic info platforms, Database platforms or Cartography, and as a reference for researchers and practitioners in industry.

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Database Issues in Geographic Information Systems © Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997 26 DATABASE ISSUES IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS In the object-based representation methods, individual objects are represented by some geometric counterpart. The explicit representation of the spatial extents (such as polylines representing the boundary of a lake) using directed line segments has given rise to the term vector model. The vector model describes geographical features in two or three dimensional coordinate systems.

The NW and SE sub-quadrants of the NW quadrant do not need to be divided further. Similarly, the NE and SW sub-quadrants of the NE and SW quadrants need no further subdivision. 1(f). 1(d). 1(d), which is about a 50% reduction in terms of storage requirement. REPRESENTATION AND MANIPULATION OF SPATIAL DATA 29 Manipulating field data We divide the operations on field data into two parts: partitioning the space, and analyzing field data. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in the sections below.

We thus propose the following research issues in the context of spatial databases. • Database architecture. As discussed in the previous sections, numerous methods have been proposed for representing and manipulating spatial data, which are not needed in traditional database systems that are designed for dealing with only alphanumeric data. One obvious solution is to separate the spatial data from non-spatial data, which are manipulated separately a geometric and a traditional database engine respectively.

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