By Karen K. Kemp

The Encyclopedia of Geographic details technology covers the essence of this intriguing, new, and increasing box in an simply understood yet richly specified sort. as well as contributions from the superior famous students in GIScience, this quantity comprises contributions from specialists in GIS’ assisting disciplines who discover how their disciplinary views are extended in the context of GIScience-what adjustments while attention of situation is further, what complexities in analytical systems are additional after we think about gadgets in 2, three or perhaps four dimensions, what do we achieve by way of visualizing our analytical effects on a map or 3D reveal?

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Sarah Battersby See also Classification, Data; Scales of Measurement B informally and collectively referred to as “BLOB” fields (the choice of term influenced by the cult status of the 1958 film The Blob). ” While these BLOB fields allowed handling of new kinds of data (such as GIS data), initially SQL could not see inside them, so analysis and modification were possible only using dedicated applications (such as some commercial GIS). Subsequently, as object orientation became prevalent in programming, several database software suppliers (such as Oracle and Informix) developed object extension mechanisms that provide the best of both worlds—they can store arbitrary data in underlying BLOB fields but still provide access through SQL.

Aggregation is the traditional means for ensuring such confidentiality. , counts, sums, averages) on the data for release to the public. , imports and exports), which are based on cross-border shipment records. Solutions to countless problems, both simple and complex, require aggregate spatial data. , user equilibrium traffic assignment model, location-allocation problems) are based on aggregate spatial data. If such data are not readily available, then they must be created by the analyst. For example, school-age children within a school board’s jurisdiction could be assigned to demand locations along streets, based on their home addresses.

The essential human environment of the cadastre implies that development of the cadastre and its related rule set should focus on the social relations among people in their interactions in rights in land, rather than on technology issues. The term cadastre is ambiguous, as the following section on “History” shows. The recorded facts and the processes that produce and disseminate them, in short, the technical core of the cadastre, may be conceived as a closed and predictable information system. Such systems can be designed and constructed through human agency.

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