By Flügge S. (ed.)

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This latter quantity, the brightness temperature spectrum, proves to be very suitable for describing interferometers and their behavior, and is to a good approximation measurable. Interferometers composed of extended aerials and sensitive over an extended frequency band are discussed in terms of the idealized isotropic monochromatic case, and are shown to measure smoothed values of the brightness temperature spectrum. Several extensions of the simple interferometer have been developed. Multiple element interferometers with sharp fringes permit quicker and simpler operation, phaseswitching and lobe-sweeping introduce technical advantages, and asymmetrical arrangements have special applications.

Babcock. The following are the essential elements of the method. Light from a small area of the Sun is transmitted through an analyzer for circular polarization to the slit of a high resolving power spectroscope, which is arranged as a monochromator. The monochromator is adjusted to pass light from one side of a magnetically sensitive spectral line (Zeeman effect, Vol. XXVIII of this Encyclopedia). Radi- 1 ation from the exit slit of the monochromator received on a photoelectric cell. If the analyzer for circular polarization is shifted to transmit alternately the right- and left-handed circularly polarized components of the spectral line, and if circular polarization is present, the emergent radiation will be modulated at the frequency of shifting of the analyzer.

Obs. Univ. Michigan 4, et terrestres, p. 3 : : 53 (1931). 6 W. O. Roberts: Draft Reports, Internat. Astronom. Union, Dublin Meeting Aug. to Sept. 1955. report of sub-commission 11, p. 81. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1955. 30 McMath and R. R. O. C. Mohler: Solar Instruments. Sect. 16. to solar observation, partly because of their linear response curves over wide ranges of intensity (see Whitfoed's article on Photoelectric Techniques, in this volume) but also because, reliable and well-developed techniques of electrical measurements may be used.

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