By Professor Dr. Ernst Hadorn (auth.)

Although this can be primarily a translation of the second one German variation released in 1970, more moderen experimental findings have, in different circumstances, been integrated into the textual content. additionally, we've attempted to provide an explanation for a number of the experiments, and their attainable interpretations, in a extra targeted means. i'm very thankful to Dr. David Turner; as well as translating the textual content, he used to be capable, due to his event in developmental biology, to indicate a couple of advancements during our collaborative discussions. Zurich, Spring 1974 ERNST HADORN Preface to the second one German variation The tenet of the 1st variation is still in strength. that's, the tools and result of developmental study are intro­ duced at any place attainable by way of experiments on am­ phibians. despite the fact that, the scope of the fabric has been considerably ex­ panded in newly brought chapters at the migrations and affinities of somatic and germ cells in addition to at the motion of genetic elements in early improvement. those are fields of research that are on the heart of present day learn. moreover, quite a few new findings were included into the textual content. the writer hopes that this little publication will proceed to facilitate figuring out of intriguing study difficulties, for the layman in addition to for the instructor and pupil of biology.

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How are ordered cell movements directed 50 and what decides which ectoderm cells are to form the epidermis and which to form the brain-spinal cord system? When does the fate of a given embryonic region become decided? When ~~r HP NF c2 SkE Fig. 17a- c. The processes of neurulation. Designations as in Fig. 15. SkE skin ectoderm (white); N E neural ectoderm and its derivatives (sparse dots); N F neural folds (black, dense dots); MS muscle segments (somites, cross-hatched); N notochord (vertically hatched); E gut endoderm (small circles).

Indeed, in discussing gastrulation we have explained only those features which will be necessary in order to understand certain key experiments. As a further preparation, however, we must briefly explain a process of morphogenetic movements in the ectoderm, one that is set in motion only after gastrulation has ceased. This process leads to the separation of the neural ectoderm from the rest of the ectodermal mass, and to the formation of the nervous system. The remaining (non-neural) ectoderm goes on to form the outer skin covering.

The eye cups will later bulge from the diencephalon (Fig. 25). The open space of the embryonic neural tube remains throughout life in the ventricles of the brain an in the central canal of the spinal cord. At a later point (p. 108) we will take up the interesting question of the fate of the neural crest cells, those cells from the borders of the neural folds which are not incorporated into the neural tube. We are not going to be satisfied, however, with a mere description of gastrulation, neurulation and organ formation.

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