By Ryan Gingeras

The cave in of the Ottoman Empire used to be under no circumstances a unique occasion. After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and heart East, the demise throes of sultanate encompassed a chain of wars, insurrections, and revolutions spanning the early 20th century. This quantity includes a complete accounting of the political, monetary, social, and foreign forces that introduced about Read more...

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After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and center East, the cave in of the Ottoman Empire encompassed a sequence of wars, insurrections, and revolutions Read more...

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Extra info for Fall of the sultanate. The Great War and the end of the Ottoman Empire 1908-1922

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Under Abdülhamid II, being a Muslim (regardless of if or how one practiced Islam) became integral to how Ottoman citizenship was ideally defined. Men in the mold of Mahmud Şevket Pasha came to see allegiance to the Ottoman imperium in such a light. He and many others who put on a uniform or assumed a desk at a provincial office comprised an ever-expanding cohort of state officials who identified themselves, first and foremost, as Muslims in the service of the state. Islam provided more than just a moral or theocratic roadmap for believers; in contemporary politics, it was a glue that could bind the majority of the empire’s citizenry together in the face of foreign and domestic antagonists.

Lebanon’s birth as an administrative unit with a Christian governor compelled many in the Levant and beyond to contemplate their own status and identity within the empire. More importantly, equality between Muslims and non-­Muslims, many would argue, helped to tip the balance of power within historically mixed communities from the former to the latter. In asking how the sultan and his government could support reforms that detracted from their local status and the national interests of Muslims, many were left to wonder if there were other political or ideological alternatives to placing their faith in the capital.

In 1899, the 15 Niyazi Berkes, The Development of Secularism in Turkey (Montreal: McGill University Press, 1964), 306. Revolution 29 sultan’s own nephew, Prince Sabaheddin, arrived in Paris and founded his own faction within the CUP milieu. He and his supporters, while espousing the need for constitutional reform, clashed with Rıza over their desire for Western support for revolution and the eventual establishment of a more decentralized state. Armenian and Macedonian nationalists similarly rejected calls for a more centralized state, a political position that provoked mainline Young Turks to denounce the militants as separatists with little interest in the empire’s welfare or survival.

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