By Jennifer S. Light
During the early many years of the chilly struggle, large-scale investments in American safeguard and aerospace learn and improvement spawned numerous problem-solving options, applied sciences, and associations. From structures research to reconnaissance satellites to imagine tanks, those suggestions didn't stay specific add-ons of the safeguard institution. as an alternative, they with no trouble chanced on civilian functions in either the non-public and public region. urban making plans and administration have been no exception.
Jennifer gentle argues that the applied sciences and values of the chilly conflict essentially formed the background of postwar city the United States. From conflict to Welfare records how American intellectuals, urban leaders, and the government selected to assault difficulties within the nation's towns through borrowing options and applied sciences first designed for army engagement with international enemies. Experiments in city challenge fixing tailored the services of protection execs to stand new threats: city chaos, blight, and social unrest. Tracing the move of strategies from army to urban making plans and administration, mild unearths how a continual resource of proposal for American urban directors lay within the nation's arrangements for war.
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Extra resources for From Warfare to Welfare: Defense Intellectuals and Urban Problems in Cold War America
24 It is important to stress that, like the users of the HES, many early players of simulation games appreciated that their models were simply models, imperfect and oversimpli~ed representations of the real world. Systems analysis and computer simulations were the subject of much constructive criticism in their early forms at RAND. ”25 Nevertheless, as talk of practical applications became more serious, hopes were high that these new systems were more “objective” tools for decision making than their predecessors and that their validity could be improved.
In June 1956, the Of~ce of Defense Mobilization sent action proposals to governors and mayors of cities with populations of more than ~fty thousand, urging them to get moving. ”43 Throughout the 1950s, proponents of defensive dispersal such as Coleman Woodbury and Catherine Bauer debated the extent to which urban dispersal was actually a coherent, tightly organized, and ef~cient federal program. 44 Both men pointed out that it was not obvious that dispersal efforts were so much a break from the past as they were continuous with it.
SAGE combined techniques, technologies, and expertise from several high-pro~le institutions, including the Lincoln Laboratories, a spinoff of MIT and SDC (System Development Corporation, itself a spinoff from RAND, created to assist the Air Defense Command of the Air Force). The technical collaborations that led to the creation of the machine also spawned the MITRE Corporation (an acronym for MIT Research and Engineering), a think tank comprised of much of the staff of Lincoln Labs’ Division 6.