By Konstantin Nossov, Konstantin S Nossov, Brian Delf

Sandwiched among the guts of historic Greece and the lands of Persia, the Greek towns of Western Anatolia have been the spark that ignited one of the most iconic conflicts of the traditional global. Fought over again and again within the fifth century BC, their conquest by way of the Persians supplied a casus belli for Alexander the nice to go the Hellespont in 334 BC and release the conflict of Granicus and the sieges of Miletus and Halicarnassus. a mix of Greek and Asian kinds of army structure, those fortified towns have been progressive of their multi-linear development - successive protecting partitions - with loopholes and mural arches. Konstantin Nossov illustrates the evolution of Greek fortifications and the impacts of the quarter they bordered during this interesting learn.

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Extra info for Greek Fortifications Of Asia Minor 500-130 B

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Dating from c. 4m thick outer walls. Each of the three surviving floors was partitioned into three rooms. The only surviving narrow entrance with a relieving arch over the lintel is on the ground floor. Each floor was pierced by loopholes. Cnidus/Knidos (Caria) Near Yazi village, at the end of the Datga peninsula. The fortifications at Cnidus, supposedly dating from c. 330 BC, protected two large areas: the mainland, where an acropolis commanded the city from the top of a hill, and a part of the adjoining peninsula.

The parapet is made from stone blocks only c. 85m in height, and it seems to have been this low in ancient times as well. This stone breastwork was probably crowned with wooden merlons or half-timber and half-mud-brick parapet. A doorway still exists in the north wall - it was possibly the only entrance to the fort. Because of their thinness, the curtains are but poorly preserved - 12 courses at most, but rarely more than six. The wall-walk does not survive, but it was presumably made in the same way as the one in the fort: on stone blocks projecting on the inner side and balanced by the weight of a parapet.

The curtain used to be topped with a continuous parapet that featured windows for arrow-firing devices. BELOW A tower at Perge, seen from the rear. The wall-walk in the fortifications of Perge ran behind the towers. The curtains adjoining this tower do not survive, but the archway connecting the second storey of the tower with the wall-walk is clearly visible. was now carried on by small professional infantry detachments often equipped with nothing but scaling ladders. An assault was frequently simultaneous at different points around the defences, in order to split up the harassed defenders into even smaller groups.

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