By Kuniaki Sato, Yoshiaki Iwasa

The groundwater technology and engineering has been heavily hooked up with a variety of fields (1) Groundwater Hydrology, (2) Groundwater Hydraulics or Geohydraulics, (3) Fluid Dynamics in Porous Media, (4) Groundwater caliber Engineering, (5) Soil Physics, and (6) Hydrogeology or Geohydrology.

The function of the booklet is to give an replace textbook of groundwater hydraulics, together with all of basic things in above-mentioned fields, to scholars (of graduate school), researchers and practitioners. the scholars and newbies who intend to specialise in groundwater hydraulics via one semester will grasp contents of the book.

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I ~ zz:-:~:-:-: "''i. ' J ' 4 ~ ••••• a r gt'QU1)d}VlJter . . - :- ~ . ,. - • pllpg . . r: .. "----' • • ~. ;;. ·~·. '" W . ---;r • ~ b Fig. 7. 15 is known as the equation of motion for groundwater flow. In general, groundwater flow is slow, and hence it is reasonable to assume that a/at ~ o. 17) The equation of motion for groundwater flow expresses Darcy 's law in terms of velocity potential (if;) and piezometric head (h). From these discussions, it can be seen that the basic groundwater flow equation can be derived by combining the continuity equation with Darcy's formula.

As = liun 2rrrTa{ -ds = I'im 2rrrT-{ ds = 11m . 2rrCTe- ( 2 = hm2rrrTr--+O r d{ ( --+0 ar r--+O ar d{ r--+O and C = Q/2rrT. /4t, d~ =du/2~ as follows. s= H - h= -Q 41TT u K? 5772 -logu + u + - + - - + ... 2· 2! 3· 3! 5772, u (u « I). 1 (b) Steady Flow If a constant discharge is pumped from a well in an aquifer (confined or unconfined) over a long period, the radial flow discharge will be equal to the pumping discharge, and a steady state is reached. Theories for steady flow under these conditions are fundamental in hydraulics and several such examples are shown below.

19. Hysteresis in wetting and drying processes for the relationship between hc ({] ) and k«(}) Therefore, to determine the unsaturated flow velocity (u), it is necessary to find functional relationships among water content (B), capillary head (he), and permeability (k). Since k(B) and he(B) vary with soil type and water content, these parameters have to be determined experimentally. There are several methods for experimental determination of these relationships. For example, k(B) and he(B) are functions of volumetric water content, as shown in Fig.

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