By Liliana Katinas, Paula Posadas, Jorge Victor Crisci

Although biogeography should be easily defined--the learn of the geographic distributions of organisms--the topic itself is very complicated, concerning quite a number clinical disciplines and a bewildering range of techniques. For comfort, biogeographers have well-known study traditions: ecological biogeography and old biogeography. This ebook is sensible of the profound revolution that old biogeography has gone through within the final 20 years, and of the ensuing confusion over its foundations, uncomplicated techniques, tools, and relationships to different disciplines of comparative biology. utilizing case reviews, the authors clarify and illustrate the basics and the main often used equipment of this self-discipline. They express the reader tips to inform while a old biogeographic method is named for, the best way to come to a decision what sort of information to gather, tips to decide upon the simplest approach for the matter handy, tips on how to practice the mandatory calculations, find out how to pick out and practice a working laptop or computer software, and the way to interpret effects. (20040101)

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The study area must be deļ¬ned before a biogeographic method can even be selected, because some methods use distribution areas (for example, some variation of parsimony analysis of endemicity [PAE]), others areas of endemism (for example, cladistic biogeography), and still others do not always require any area delimitation (for example, panbiogeography). 21 22 METHODS IN HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY DISTRIBUTION AREAS The distribution area is the total region within which any taxonomic unit is distributed or presents itself (Cain, 1944).

3. The location of synthetic or closely related forms. The center of origin is placed in the area where the most primitive forms are found at present. 4. The location of maximum size of organisms. The center of origin is placed in the area currently exhibiting the maximum physical development of individuals. 5. An increase in the number of dominant genes toward the center of origin. The center of origin is located in the area where the individuals with the largest number of dominant genes are found today.

All organisms inhabited this island. The animals and plants that required a cold climate lived near the peak of a high mountain, and those that needed a warmer climate inhabited the plains. As the seas receded, land area increased, and animals and plants dispersed from their initial habitats to their current locations. This hypothesis was intended to explain the causes of geographical distribution of organisms that lived on Earth. In accordance with the biblical account of the Garden of Eden, Linnaeus proposed that species originated in one small area, then dispersed to other areas available for colonization.

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