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When 6 this expression is multiplied by ΙΟ , Ε is given in terms of electron volts 2 as 536(E /M). This formulation neglects relativistic effects due t o variation of electron mass with velocity. If a 5-Mev. y ray is emitted b y a nucleus of mass 50, the recoiling nucleus will have an energy equal to (536 X 2 5 ) / 50, or 268 ev. A heavy element, such as lead with a weight close to 200, will have a recoil energy of only some 65 ev. I n most circumstances, therefore, neutron capture will lead to rupture of the chemical bond.

DEUTERON REACTIONS (d,p). T h e general equation 1. Deuteron Capture with Proton Emission for this process m a y be written A T Z 2 + χΗ - > fl 1 + Z P A +1 (33) This reaction can occur either with partial capture or with total capture, as discussed above. The reaction is formally equivalent to (η,γ), so t h a t the nature of the products is the same as for the (71,7) reaction. Thus, mainly negative ß-particle emitters are formed. Although all elements can be transmuted in the (71,7) process by any neutron, it requires ~ 1 6 - M e v .

T h e (d,a) reaction (reaction c) begins approximately a t t h e same voltage as t h e (d,p) reaction (reaction d ) , b u t with much smaller yields, never equaling a t a n y time either (d,n) or (d,p) yields 3 throughout t h e energy range 3 t o 16 M e v . T h e (d,H ) reaction has the lowest cross section of all t h e reactions possible and shows appreciable yield only a t relatively high bombarding energy. ,2n) reaction h a s a threshold energy of some 6 M e v . a n d so does n o t compete seriously with (d,n) and (d,p) until this energy is exceeded appreciably.

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