By Professor Francis Dov Por (auth.)

There are few achievements of contemporary guy that can examine to the Suez Canal. In Egypt-the land of the main recognized wonders of antiquity-the Suez Canal was once equipped because the first technical ask yourself ofthe business revolution. Ferdinand de Lesseps was once a guy straddling epochs-the romantic utopism of Saint­ Simon and the trendy global of technocracy. the large venture was once at its commence shouldered by way of the crowds of tens of hundreds of thousands of pressured employees nonetheless to be had and ended as a show-piece for contemporary mechanical earth-moving innovations. The canal developers themselves have been nonetheless polyhistors within the previous feel: engineers­ cum-zoologists; naval officers-cum-geologists; diplomats meddling with chem­ istry. throughout the 4 generations of the life of the Suez Canal, the fateful expert narrowmindedness grew to become gradually worse. The engineers con­ tinued their paintings in and round the Canal, yet they turned oblivious and unresponsive to the environmental influence, to the interesting alterations within the biotic surroundings which they have been generating with their very own hands.

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Extra info for Lessepsian Migration: The Influx of Red Sea Biota into the Mediterranean by Way of the Suez Canal

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9). One should mention briefly that the relatively high percentage of endemic species of the Red Sea-siblings of ancestral Indian Ocean forms~an be ex- 23 The Pleistocene of the Red Sea -:\0" 25' - -25" 20" - -20' RED SEA Assumed hil;)h gloc1al distribution of Ihe high salinily - cool waler and Ihe Soulh Red Sea -Gulf of RED SEA Preseni'dlSiribulion of Ihe high salinily - cool woler an

During the fighting of 1915 navigation was interrupted for only a few days. In the Second World War, the interruption was for 76 days. This increased to several months after the 1956 crisis. After June 1967 the trafik was shut down, to be started again only in 1975. From December 1973 to May 1974 a compact dam, built from one shore to the other slightly north of the outlet of the Canal into the Great Bitter Lake, interfered with the free flow of water through the Canal. By April 1975 the Canal was cleared of all obstacles and in June 1975 it was reopened to navigation.

17. Aerial photograph of northern end of Suez Canal (courtesy Y. 18. Aerial photograph of Lake Timsah, with Isrna'iliya on left and lagoons on right (courtesy Y. 19. Aerial photograph of northern part of Great Bitter Lake, with lagoon of Deversoir (ei Arnbach); (courtesy Y. 20. Aerial photograph ofsouthern outlet ofSuez Canal, with lagoon of Suez (courtesy Y. Etarn) 46 The Suez Canal surface of over 100 km 2 • The depression in the northern part was over 12 m deep and, therefore, little deepening had to be done in the northern basin.

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