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Duplication is a violation of applicable law. 2-20 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS, SEVENTH EDITION, 2014 • The effect of aggregate mining or other operations in the channel; • Potential changes in the rates or volumes of runoff due to land use changes; • The effect of natural geomorphic stream pattern changes on the proposed structure; and • The effect of geomorphic changes on existing structures in the vicinity of, and caused by, the proposed structure. For unstable streams or flow conditions, special studies shall be carried out to assess the probable future changes to the plan form and profile of the stream and to determine countermeasures to be incorporated in the design, or at a future time, for the safety of the bridge and approach roadways.

2 Protective structures include those that provide a safe and controlled separation of traffic on multimodal facilities using the same right-of-way. , may justify barrier protection, even with low design velocities. 3—Geometric Standards Requirements of the AASHTO publication A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets shall either be satisfied or exceptions thereto shall be justified and documented. Width of shoulders and geometry of traffic barriers shall meet the specifications of the Owner.

They are thick where the stresses are greatest and thin where the stresses are smaller. • The function of each part and how the function is performed is visible. • Components are slender and widely spaced, preserving views through the structure. • The bridge is seen as a single whole, with all members consistent and contributing to that whole; for example, all elements should come from the same family of shapes, such as shapes with rounded edges. • The bridge fulfills its function with a minimum of material and minimum number of elements.

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