By G. E. R. Lloyd

This examine of the origins and development of Greek technology focuses particularly at the interplay among clinical and conventional styles of proposal from the 6th to the fourth century BC. It starts off with an exam of the way specific Greek authors deployed the class of "magic," occasionally attacking its ideals and practices; those assaults are then concerning their heritage in Greek drugs and philosophical inspiration. In his moment bankruptcy Lloyd outlines advancements within the concept and perform of argument in Greek technological know-how and assesses their importance. He subsequent discuses the development of empirical examine as a systematic device from the Presocratics to Aristotle. ultimately, he considers why the Greeks invented technology, their contribution to its background, and the social, fiscal, ideological and political components that had a referring to its growth.

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Therefore it neces­ sarily remains at rest. I f this was indeed A naxim ander’s reasonin g , 5 i then we m ay see this as the first extant instance, in natural science, o f the use o f w hat we m ay call the principle o f sufficient reason. A n y reconstruction o f the dialectical arguments used by the Milesians must rem ain conjectural. But w ith later philosophers, Xenophanes, H eraclitus and especially Parmenides, we are on firm er ground. First the arguments that Xenophanes brought against anthropom orphism provide good examples o f inform al attempts to reduce that view to absurdity.

W hatever other factors the farm er m ay believe he has to argum ent is based on a premiss - that the god is responsible for the disease - that the H ippocratic writer him self rejects. As we have seen (p. 26), the only sense in which he is prepared to say the disease is divine is that in which all diseases are divine — because the w hole o f nature is. Morb. Sacr. ch. 18 paras, iff, especially 6 (G) (L v i 3 9 4 -9 ff» 3 9 6 -5 ff). see above pp. 2 if. 50 The criticism o f magic and the inquiry concerning nature The criticism o f magic and the inquiry concerning nature take into account in order to insure a good crop o f w heat, he knows that he w ill have no crop at all unless he sows seed.

Rh. 11 24 is devoted to apparent enthymemes or rhetorical syllogisms. See R yle 1966, p. 131, on A ristotle’s ‘ tips in sheer eristic gam esm anship’, and cf. Owen 1968, p. 107. Rh. II 20-26 (the ‘ enthym em e’ or rhetorical syllogism is said to be based on probable premisses or signs, Rh. 1355a6f, 1357a32f, APr. 70a io f). 30 Rh. II 25, I402a34ff, cf. Top. viii 10, 161 a iff, APr. n 26, 69a37ff. 3 * Rh. in i8, I4 i8 b 3 9 ff, 32 Rh. Ill 19, 1419 b loff. 33 Especially Top. , but cf. g. at SE i6 9 b 3 i and I74a36.

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