By Elke Ludewig
Renewable power assets now play an important position within the power offer debate, and particularly a brand new curiosity in wind strength has ended in the intensified building of wind farms. due to the growing to be call for for renewable power, offshore wind farms (OWFs) are more and more gaining in acceptance, considering the fact that yields over sea are higher and extra trustworthy than over land. by contrast history it really is changing into really pressing to figure out no matter if and if this is the case to what volume such OWF growth impacts our oceans and native climates. OWFs produce a downstream wind pace aid, the so-called wind-wake impact, which affects atmospheric boundary layers, alters neighborhood wind features and in flip impacts ocean dynamics. This e-book can help readers to appreciate intimately those OWF-induced adjustments within the surroundings and ocean through studying version simulations and measurements. during this context, OWF-induced upwelling and downwelling are key aspects.
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Extra resources for On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics
1 Ocean simulation and analysis concepts at a glance Main simulation Description Resolution Topography Time step (dt) Wind time step Output Wind farm Wind forcing Meteorological forcing Boundaries TOS-01: ocean box simulations TOS-02: North Sea simulations Used for theoretical analysis Idealized ocean box 3 km Â 3 km Â 2 m Used for analysis of German Bight Real North Sea area 3 km Â 3 km Â z, with z-indices of 05 m (000–050 m) 10 m (050–100 m) 20 m (100–200 m) 50 m (200–700 m) North Sea’s common topography (Fig.
So the stress is a negative momentum flux into the ocean working as frictional force F at the sea surface: 26 3 Models, Data, and Methodology À Á F x; F y ¼ 1 ∂τx 1 ∂τy , ρref ∂z ρref ∂z ð3:5Þ Using those stratifications and spin-up of wind forcing, the actual effect on the ocean is simulated by a run using the baroclinic, prognostic mode of HAMSOM, Smagorinsky diffusion, and Lax–Wendroff advection scheme. That simulation is denoted as master simulation. Besides this main setup, various setups that differ a little bit from the main setup were considered.
6. The boundaries are treated as open in case of no coast. The temperature and salinity at the model boundaries are climatological data from WOA-01. HAMSOM NES is meteorologically forced with Era-Interim data every 6 h. The time step of simulations is 1 minute. Simulations were done for the years 2010 and 2011. HAMSOM NS (Red) HAMSOM NS comprises ocean simulations of the North Sea with a horizontal resolution of 3 km Â 3 km. The vertical resolution is equal to the one of HAMSOM NES, and the topography is similar but logically spanned only over the model domain of HAMSOM NS.