By Vincent G. Potter
This uncomplicated advent to the philosophical inquiry into the basic questions of human understanding contains a variety of rigorously designed research questions.
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Additional resources for On Understanding Understanding: Philosophy of Knowledge
Inductive support for an hypothesis is usually of this sort, and it can be put schematically like this in an invalid conditional syllogism: If p, then q But q Therefore (probably) p. q is evidence for p, but it is only a necessary condition for p's truth. It is not sufficient. " Still, if q were false, so would p be. '' Then, of course, if it is raining, the streets are wet; but even if the streets are wet, we can conclude only that it is likely that it has been raining since the streets might be wet because someone hosed them down.
Notice that in any given case we may not be able to decide whether a proposition is true or false (because we do not have enough evidence to decide), but in every case, if the proposition really has a meaning, it is one or the other If it is neither true nor false, we would be forced to say that some "meaningful" propositions generate paradoxes like the following: This sentence is false. If the preceding sentence expresses a proposition, that proposition can be neither true nor false, because if it is true, then it is false, and if it is false, then it is true.
I would be in Hegel's moonless night in which all the cows are black. So, the very fact that the question is raised means that it Page 21 has been answered in a general way. There is indeed a non-ego of some sort. " There would be no role for the object to play in knowing. The object does not determine what is known; the subject determines how things are thought to be. In the limit case, then, things would be just as the subject thinks they are, because nothing would have any reality independently of being thought by the subject.