By R. Worringer

Trendy "clash of civilizations" among the Islamic global and the West are in lots of methods rooted in 19th-century resistance to Western hegemony. This compellingly argued and punctiliously researched transnational research info the ways that Japan served as a version for Ottomans in achieving "non-Western" modernity in a Western-dominated international order.

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Extra resources for Ottomans Imagining Japan: East, Middle East, and Non-Western Modernity at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

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It is imagined as sovereign because the concept was born in an age in which Enlightenment and Revolution were 28 Ottomans Imagining Japan destroying the legitimacy of the divinely-ordained, hierarchical dynastic realm. . 8 European expansion and the secular, scientific rationalism of the Enlightenment dictated the historicization of the nation-state. 9 The Western nation-state was implied to be and indeed was accepted as the norm demonstrating the successful achievement of progress and modernization in the current era.

The Ottoman Empire, as a state claiming both succession from earlier Islamic civilization and a history in and with Christian Europe, was intellectually inseparable from these currents of thought. Ottoman individuals wrestling with questions of modernity were constrained by these ultimately Western-centric ideals that subordinated the non-West to Europe. 4 Ottoman attempts to liberate the Empire from European manipulation through an articulated program of reform and modernization of both state and society, however, retained the conceptual agenda for modernity originating from the West.

9 The Western nation-state was implied to be and indeed was accepted as the norm demonstrating the successful achievement of progress and modernization in the current era. As Partha Chatterjee points out, This type of nationalism [leading to a Western nation-state] shares the same material and intellectual premises with the European Enlightenment, with industry and the idea of progress, and with modern democracy. Together they constitute a historical unity . . 10 In effect, the historicized Western nation-state, with its claims of secular, rational science and humanism as base, combined symbiotically with European colonial expansion to generate a political and intellectual hegemony in which the “non-West,” the “East,” or the “Orient,” was relegated to the seemingly indisputable position of the subordinate.

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