By D. S. Clarke
"Defends panpsychism, the view that mentality is found in all average our bodies with unified and persisting organization."
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"Defends panpsychism, the view that mentality is found in all typical our bodies with unified and persisting association. "
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Additional resources for Panpsychism and the Religious Attitude
11 This is not very helpful in providing us with a guide in identifying those things to which we should attribute mentality. Later critics of panpsychism interpreted the doctrine as requiring the extension of mentality to all bodies, including planets and trees. ”12 Edwards then argues that because it is obvious that such objects as tennis balls lack this aspect, the doctrine is absurd. Indeed, it is absurd under such a formulation, but this is not the standard formulation in the panpsychist tradition.
This concept of an immortal soul existing before birth, joining temporarily with the body, and then existing after death was specific to humanity for the Greeks. There is no suggestion that a cow or pig had the remotest chance of immortality. In the sacred writings of the Hindu religion, the belief is expressed that the souls of humans can inhabit the bodies of lower animals in some afterlife, or that what in a previous life was at the animal level could be elevated to the human. This has the effect of endowing immortal souls to the animals to and from which the souls migrate.
But the humanistic alternative seems equally inconsistent with our ascriptions of mentality in daily life to lower animals. Why is the dog digging a hole? Because it wants a bone, and expects to find it there, we reply. In this reply we attribute mentality to the dog just as naturally as we would to another human. The humanists’ denial of our right to make such an ascription seems unreasonable because in effect it would prohibit, or at least explain away, a very useful practice for which we seem to have no viable alternative.