By K. Galsgaard, E. R. Priest (auth.), Oddbjorn Engvold, John W. Harvey (eds.)

The Sun's magnetic box is chargeable for the spectacularly dynamic and complex phenomenon that we name the corona. The earlier decade has noticeable a tremendous bring up in our knowing of this a part of the sun outer surroundings, either due to observations and due to fast advances in numerical experiences. The YOHKOH satellite tv for pc has saw the sunlight now for over six years, generating stunning sequences of pictures that exhibit the complexity of the corona. The imaging and spectroscopic tools on SOHO have extra info at the cooler a part of the corona. and because April of 1998 hint has given us very excessive answer pictures of the 1-2 MK corona, at cadences that let specified observations of box oscillations, loop evolution, mass ejecta, and so on.
This quantity comprises papers contributed to a workshop (held in August 1999 in Monterey, California) that used to be devoted to an exploration of the newest effects at the sunlight corona, in addition to at the transition zone and occasional sunlight wind. the various shows on the assembly revolved round one key subject matter: the complete outer surroundings of the sunlight is intrinsically dynamic, evolving so speedily that even the concept that of a unmarried neighborhood temperature for a unmarried fluid usually breaks down. additionally, the corona is an intrinsically nonlinear and nonlocal medium. those elements are mentioned in those lawsuits that come with either papers that evaluation fresh advancements (both in line with observations and on theoretical/numerical modeling), and unique examine papers in accordance with observations from many various observatories.
The papers provided on the assembly upload as much as this kind of quantity that they're allotted over Topical problems with sunlight Physics (December 1999 and April 2000), that are reprinted in those certain volumes, of which this can be the second one.

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Additional info for Physics of the Solar Corona and Transition Region: Part II Proceedings of the Monterey Workshop, held in Monterey, California, August 1999

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In this respect the structure of the solar atmosphere, across the field line is of fundamental importance, being dictated possibly by the mechanisms of energy release, as recognized by Litwin and Rosner (1993). The model, in order to treat satisfactorily the fluid behavior of the plasma, has to include the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for the fluid plasma, plus the gas equation of state: an at + V . n (2) MODELS OF DYNAMIC CORONAL LOOPS au at - + \/. [(u + p)v] = mng· v - n 2 P (T ) + R(r) + \/Fe, 35 (3) where n is the number density of hydrogen, v the macroscopic velocity of the plasma, p the plasma pressure, m the average particle mass, g the gravitational acceleration, u the plasma energy density, P (T) the plasma radiative losses per unit emission measure, R(r) the heating, here prescribed per unit volume, and \/ Fe is the divergence of the heat flux; t and r are time and the spatial coordinate.

1989; Mewe, Lemen, and van den Oord, 1986; Mewe, Kaastra, and Liedahl, 1995, and references therein) and the effect of the heating. The heating - which maintains the corona at a temperature of a million degrees and whose variation may be responsible for many of the observed changes - is a fundamental component of any coronal model and its formulation may depend on the specific problem. In the light of our ignorance of the heating mechanism, it may be prescribed ·as a function of the spatial coordinate and time: for instance, it can be assumed uniform in the corona or concentrated in some parts of the loop, to mimic different mechanisms, as in the Antiochos et al.

J!. with b 4 27 == 2J(Eo - A2)(Eo - B2)(E o - C 2) (40) is larger, equal, or smaller than zero. JEi)t (Eo = A2, B 2, C2). (43) The existence of the positive eigenvalue shows clearly that these particular equilibrium points are unstable for all real values of the parameters A, B, C in this particular case, except when the initial value of X 2(0) is zero. The special case of the subset of solutions with A = 0, say, leads to exactly the same expression with Eo = (B 2 + C 2 )/ 2. 6. A Remark on the Potential Function of the Force-Free Magnetic Fields As can be seen from the rotation of the force-free magnetic field equation (1) .

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