By G. Jenkins

For the entire realization to radical political Islam, there's little knowledge that the democratically elected govt of Turkey has an Islamic style. This ebook locations inside of historic context the increase of the Islamic political occasion now governing Turkey and examines the results of its rule for that state and its family with Europe, the USA and the center East.

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Particularly initially, the leaders of the Sultanate of Rum appear to have been little interested in the finer points of Islamic theology. Although they were officially Sunni, it seems that the early Seljuk rulers were at least extremely tolerant of, and even may have been sympathetic towards, Shia Islam. However, they gradually identified themselves increasingly strongly with Sunni Islam. Starting in the late twelfth century, they began to invite Hanafi Sunni scholars from Iran and Central Asia to settle in Anatolia.

FROM SHAMANISM TO CALIPHATE 37 The Safavids took their name from a religious order established by a Sufi sheikh called Safi od-Din (c. 1253–1334) from Ardabil, in what is now northwestern Iran. 63 After his death, this tolerance grew into sympathy until, in around 1400, the Safavids began to refer to themselves as Shia. ” During the fifteenth century, the influence of the Safavid order spread not only through what is now Iran but also the Caucasus, Syria, Transoxania, and eastern Anatolia. In 1501, led by the teenage Shah Ismail (ruled 1501–24),64 the Safavids overthrew the rulers of northern Iran, known as the Akkoyunlu, and established the first explicitly Shia state, which eventually evolved into the modern Islamic Republic of Iran.

These troops subsequently frequently played a key role in the dynastic struggles that eventually so weakened the Abbasid Caliphate that it split into a patchwork of rival emirates. Far greater numbers of Turkic-speaking nomads were converted to Islam while still in Central Asia, where one of the periodic massive movements of nomads westward21 had coincided with the eastward expansion of the suzerainty of the caliphate into Transoxania; the area east of the Oxus River which today forms Uzbekistan and parts of Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.

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