By Robert J. Braidwood, Bruce Howe

The amount lower than evaluate offers with the goals, equipment, initial effects and difficulties of 3 campaigns in Iraqi Kurdistan (1948, 1950-51, 1954-55). It doesn't supply a last excavation or exploration file, considering many of the fabrics haven't but been studied intimately; however it encompasses a worthy sequence of essays approximately certain facets of the venture which used to be undertaken as a primary significant try and establish the earliest village-materials and their speedy predecessors. The archaeological and common chapters to the e-book are the paintings of R. J. Braidwood and Bruce Howe. They clarify the scene and development of the field-work; they offer a survey of the websites excavated and the fabrics accrued (chapters I-V). the center a part of the booklet comprises contributions by way of the scientists who took a vital half within the box examine: F. R. Matson writes on ceramic research and carbon 14 relationship; H. E. Wright Jr. on weather and prehistoric guy within the japanese Mediterranean (a comparative examine fascinated about the whole Levant); H. Helbaek at the palaeo-ethnobotany of the close to East and Europe (an first-class bankruptcy, such a lot informative for the archaeologist looking for particular statements and analyses of early "agricultural" materials); and Charles A. Reed on animal domestication within the prehistoric close to East (again very instructive, usually with a component of reproach directed to box archaeologists who ignored to acknowledge or salvage zoological facts of their excavations). The concluding chapters evaluate the consequences in a extra basic surroundings as far as they are often outlined in chronological, "environmental" and common cultural phrases and sessions. [From a assessment by way of Machteld J. Mellink within the American magazine of Archaeology sixty five (1961) 195-96].

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Were we to make such an analysis, the work in the basal levels of Tell al-Sultan (Jericho) would hold much of our attention. In these excavations, Miss Kenyon (1957) has exposed successive stages of a well developed architectural complex. Thick masonry fortification walls, which included a tower with interior staircase and a surrounding rock-cut ditch, inclosed a town-size cluster of mud-brick houses in an area of approximately 8 - 10 acres. , have been announced for them. , lies under these earliest phases.

124)-to us rather quaint but perceptive-geographical localization of the problem area, which localization was emphasized by Peake and Fleure (1927, p. 140), who also laid some stress on the importance of agricultural settlements as a new way of life. The great British prehistorian V. Gordon Childe wrote much on the theoretical importance of the transition, characterizing it as one of the great revolutions in human history, although he (Childe, 1935) credited Elliot Smith with the idea. But the general notion certainly antedates Smith.

Lies under these earliest phases. " The advisability of this terminology and of these interpretations has been questioned on the basis of present evidence (Braidwood, 1957 and 1958a). These doubts do not detract from the importance of the site of Tell al-Sultan. Although we at first suspected its importance was that of a relatively early provincial town in a somewhat specialized ecological niche, the recent news of Natufian-like strata and of a certain continuum in the typological sequence upward into the overlying nonceramic town deposits is also of considerable importance.

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