By National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Panel on Confidentiality Issues Arising from the Integration of Remotely Sensed and Self-Identifying Data, Paul C. Ste

Exact, actual spatial info associated with social and behavioral facts is revolutionizing social technology via beginning new questions for research and enhancing realizing of human habit in its environmental context. while, particular spatial information make it much more likely that people will be pointed out, breaching the promise of confidentiality made whilst the information have been amassed. simply because norms of technology and executive corporations desire open entry to all medical information, the stress among some great benefits of open entry and the hazards linked to capability breach of confidentiality pose major demanding situations to researchers, learn sponsors, medical associations, and knowledge archivists."Putting humans at the Map" reveals that a number of technical methods for making facts on hand whereas proscribing hazard have strength, yet none is sufficient by itself or together. This booklet deals techniques for schooling, education, learn, and perform to researchers, expert societies, federal organizations, institutional assessment forums, and information stewards.

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Releasing these identifiers can raise the risks of identification to extremely high levels. , 1999). For example, some analyses may be impossible to do with coarsened identifiers, and others may produce misleading results due to altered relationships between the attributes and spatial variables. Furthermore, if spatial identifiers are used as matching variables For linking datasets, altering them can lead to matching errors, which, when numerous, m a y seriously degrade analyses. Perturbing the spatial information may not reduce disclosure risks sufficiently to maintain confidentiality, especially when the released data include other information that is known by a secondary data user.

SOURCE: Seasironi (2002:290). having IRBs do m o r e to educate investigaFors may be important to increased awareness of confidentiality issues, but education alone does not address t w o challenges presented by the analysis of linked spatial and social data. One of these challenges is that major sources of fine-grained spatial data, such as commercial firms a n d such government agencies as the N a tional Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oce- BOOKLEET © PUTTING PEOPLE ON THE MAP 30 anic and Atmospheric Administration ( N O A A ) , do not have the same hisFory and tradition of the protection of h u m a n research subjects that are common in social science, social policy, and health agencies, particularly in relation to spatial data.

For discussions of ethical issues in social network research, see Borgatri and Molina (2003), Breiger (2005), Kadushin '2005;, and Klovdahl (2005). BOOKLEET © 25 LINKED SOCIAL-SPATIAL DATA cant risks of h a r m to research participants. S. government used special tabulations of 1940 census data to locate Japanese Americans For internment (Anderson and Fienberg, 1997). Improvements in the precision of spatial data and advances in geocoding are likely to lower the costs of identifying people For such purposes.

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