By Karen Fisher
River diversions: A layout guide covers all elements of river diversion layout together with technical, development and criminal issues in a single concise quantity. This crucial e-book presents counsel at the layout of river diversions considering the big variety of matters that has to be thought of within the making plans, layout and construction.
Split into 4 elements this authoritative quantity starts with an total view at the matters to be addressed in river diversion layout, info of information requisites and description layout technique
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Additional info for River diversions : a design guide
If the diversion channel is to replace the existing channel then the flow capacity should be at least the same as the existing channel. However, it is good practice to design for a particular design flood in order to minimise the possibility of the diversion channel causing flooding in areas that were not previously at risk of flooding. In this situation care must be taken to ensure that increasing the flow capacity of the channel does not cause morphological or environmental concerns. For example, an enlarged channel may silt up and revert to its former natural size unless regularly maintained.
This results in marked changes from steep to shallow longitudinal slopes. At low river flows this change in profile can lead to a shallow cascade flow over riffles, leading to a deeper tranquil flow in the pools. Turbulence in riffles increases oxygenation, while the pools are more stable, sheltered and rich in organic matter. 5. FLOW VELOCITY Flow velocity influences rates of sedimentation and erosion, the grading of substrate, and suitability of a site for certain types of fish, invertebrates and plants.
1. Hydraulic capacity When the design flow has been selected an initial estimate of the size of channel can be made based on steady state conditions using Manning’s formula, as described below in Equation 1. Q AR 2a3 s1a2 n where Q is A is R is P is s is n is 1 the design flow the cross-sectional area of flow hydraulic radius ( A/P) the wetted perimeter of the channel the water surface slope a roughness coefficient. Values are given in Appendix 2. The process for applying the formula is as follows: • decide the channel shape and design water level • calculate flow • is the flow approximately equal to the design flow?