By Benedictus de Spinoza

The single whole version in English of Baruch Spinoza's works, this quantity beneficial properties Samuel Shirley’s preeminent translations, distinctive right now through the lucidity and fluency with which they communicate the flavour and that means of Spinoza’s unique texts.

Michael L. Morgan presents a normal advent that areas Spinoza in Western philosophy and tradition and sketches the philosophical, clinical, spiritual, ethical and political dimensions of Spinoza’s proposal. Morgan’s short introductions to every paintings provide a succinct historic, biographical, and philosophical evaluate.

A chronology and index are integrated.

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We must now proceed to consider those cases which are loosely called fictions in common parlance even though we clearly understand that the reality is not as we feign it to be. For example, although I know that the earth is round, nothing prevents my saying to somebody that the earth is a hemisphere, like half an orange on a plate, or saying that the sun moves round the earth, and the like. If we consider these cases, we shall find nothing that is not consistent with what we have already said, provided that we note that, first, we have occasionally fallen into errors of which we are now conscious; and second, that we can entertain the fictitious idea, or at least the thought, that others have fallen into the same error, or may so do, as we once did.

And in turn the idea of the idea of Peter again has its own essence, which can also be the object of another idea, and so on without end. This anyone can experience for himself when he realises that he knows what Peter is, and also that he knows that he knows, and again that he knows that he knows that he knows, and so on. From this it is evident that, to understand the essence of Peter, it is not necessary to understand the idea of Peter, and far less the idea of Peter. This is no more than to say that, in order to know, I need not know that I know, and far less do I need to know that I know that I know.

Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect will I convince myself that this is so in reality, I can no longer entertain the idea, say, of an infinite fly; and when I have formed an idea of the essence of the soul, I can no longer conceive it as square, and so forth. But this view must be examined. First, either they deny or they grant that we have the capacity to understand something. If they grant this, then it must follow that what they say about fiction also applies to intellection. If they deny it, then let us, who know that we know something, consider what they are saying.

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