By J. Delayen

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There are three basic arrangements. • Adding many individual cells of the same or nearly the same shape in a long arrangement. The input radiofrequency power is fed from one end of the structure and travels along with the particles to be accelerated. At the end of the structure the leftover radiofrequency power is coupled out and dissipated. This arrangement is named a travelling-wave structure and is realized in many normal conducting cases. The filling time of the structure is very fast, but high radiofrequency peak power is needed to establish a reasonable gradient (for a detailed analysis of travelling-wave structures see [41]).

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The most important diagnostic tool in analysing the behaviour of a superconducting cavity is the temperature mapping system. Temperature sensors are placed at the outer wall of the cavity and register the temperature distribution. From these data, information about the location and physical nature of spots with enhanced losses can be gained, such as: the location of quenches or field emissions, the scaling of losses with the cavity field, the time development of defects or the creation and processing of loss mechanisms.

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