By Stephen W. Schaffer , Junichi Azuma John B. Lombardini
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Additional info for Taurine Nutritional Value and Mechanisms of Action
Cystine in the presence of water is cleaved by cystathionine -y-Iyase in a ,B-disulfide elimination reaction to produce thiocysteine, pyruvate, and ammonia. Thiocysteine may react with cystine or other thiols to form thiocystine and cysteine, or H 2S, disulfides, or sulfur(SO) or SSO-23. As inhibition of cystathionine -y-Iyase with proparglyglycine has been shown by Stipanuk and Beck (1982) to result in a large decrease in production of H 2S in rat liver homogenates, it indicates that this is a major pathway of cysteine desulfhydration.
I. Pathol. 78:504 (1975). C. Hayes, A Pronczuk, AE. F. Stephan, Taurine decreases platelet aggregation in cats and humans, Am. I. Clin. Nutr. 49: 1211 (1989). E. G. R. Rogers, Cysteic acid as a precursor of taurine in cats, FASEB I. (1990). EA. C. Hayes, Gender and dietary amino acid supplementation influence the plasma and whole blood taurine status of taurine-depleted cats, I. Nutr. 121: S173 (1991). EA. C. Hayes, Taurine concentrations in human plasma and whole blood: estimation of error from intra- and interindividual variation and sampling technique, Am.
Accordingly, the threonine and arginine data were pooled and treated as one dietary manipulation to allow further evaluation of the data by repeated-measures and factorial ANOVA. Period 3. When threonine and arginine were removed and only methionine and cystine remained as supplements in the diet, both plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations again declined significantly (Table 2). ±. lmol/L, the lowest concentration achieved throughout the entire study. Period 4. Resupplementing with arginine and threonine in addition to the sulfur amino acids resulted in the steady progressive increase in both plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations by day 120 to levels significantly elevated above depletion and higher than values during any of the previous treatment periods.