By Carville Earle
The geography of latest U.S. political economy—the relocation of organizations towards the sunbelt and out of the country; the decline of producing within the rust belt; and the increase of footloose manufacturer companies, NAFTA-inspired exchange flows—has roots that run deep into our earlier. This leading edge heritage by means of one among our so much exclusive historic geographers strains their development again to the seventeenth-century origins of liberalism, republicanism, and the commonplace monetary crises via then endemic in capitalist societies. the matter the English after which the american citizens confronted used to be overcoming those crises whereas heading off the political extremes of royal absolutism and later of socialism, communism, and fascism. The English manner alternated among the doctrinaire ideologies and geographies of republicanism and liberalism. In 1776, via blending components of either, american citizens created solely new ideological alloys. Henceforth, coverage regimes alternated among Democrats and Republicans and their particular fusions of liberal and republican ideology. Democrats mixed publicanism's tenets of equality, various and unstable areas, and shopper revolution with liberalism's tenets of loose exchange, geographical consolidation, and dispersion (New Deal 'liberalism'). Republicans combined liberalism's biases towards elites, nearby specialization and balance, and manufacturer revolution with republicanism's tilt towards nationalism, expansionism, and demographic focus (Reagan's America). Muddying liberal and republican ideologies and geographies in ways in which tempered their extremes, americans could upload yet one more twist. three times, upon the beginning of the 1st, moment, and 3rd republics, they enlarged the geographical jurisdictions of the government, prolonged the domain names of U.S. energy, and redefined the character of the country. Carville Earle defines those enlargements because the distributive and partisan 'sectional kingdom' of the 1790s, the regulatory and redistributive 'national country' of the Eighteen Eighties, and the neoliberal 'transnational country' of the Eighties. In tandem with the yank dynamic of crisis-and-recovery, the writer argues that those 3 'states' have shaped a dynamic and dialectical sequence of geographies that, as instruments of ideology, have performed even more to make sure the expansion and viability of the U.S. economic climate, polity, and society.
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Extra resources for The American Way: A Geographical History of Crisis and Recovery
Other consumer revolutions followed, in the middle of the nineteenth century (the so-called mechanization of the household) and once again in the middle third of the twentieth century (the “electrification of the household,” the emphasis on consumer durables, and the growing role of government in high-mass consumption). Meanwhile, three producer revolutions alternated with these three consumer revolutions. The first emphasized machines and factory production and came at the end of the eighteenth century; the second emphasized the vertical integration of mass production and throughput and came at the end of the nineteenth century (“Fordism”); and the third emphasized flexible production, lean manufacturing, and producer services and came at the end of the twentieth century (“post-Fordism”).
Part I presents in six chapters the theoretical foundations of the argument—that is, the way in which Americans have responded to (and repeatedly overcome) recurrent economic and social crises at intervals of a half century more or less. Chapter 1 offers an overview of the American way of crisis, response, and recovery. Chapter 2 describes the periodic structure of the American past; this structure is based on seven and a fraction historical periods each lasting a half century more or less with the first period beginning in the 1640s and the last in the 1980s.
Second is a dialectical dynamic in which the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism are brought to bear on the domestic and foreign policies and problems of alternating periods and out of which emerges a series of policy regimes that alternate between liberalism and republicanism before 1776 and between republics and democracies thereafter. Third is a series of collateral geographical reconstructions (likewise periodic and dialectical) arising from the geosophical foundations of liberalism and republicanism, deploying spatial strategies consistent with these foundations (to wit, on these dimensions republicans invariably preferring the first, and liberals, the second: spatial expansion/ consolidation, spatial concentration/dispersion; regional diversification/specialization; and regional volatility/stability), and extending these across the multiple scales of nation (state), region, and locale.