By Ernst Mayr

Not anyone during this century can converse with higher authority at the development of principles in biology than Ernst Mayr. And no publication has ever demonstrated the existence sciences so firmly within the mainstream of Western highbrow heritage as "The development of organic Thought." Ten years in training, this can be a paintings of epic proportions, tracing the advance of the main difficulties of biology from the earliest makes an attempt to discover order within the range of lifestyles, to fashionable study into the mechanisms of gene transmission.

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2) Science strives to provide explanations for the occurrence of events. (3) Science proposes explanatory hypotheses that must be testable, that is, accessible to the possibility of rejection. More broadly, science attempts to subsume the vast diversity of the phenomena and processes of nature under a much smaller number of explanatory principles. Discovery of New Facts or Development of New Concepts? Discoveries are the symbol of science in the public mind. The discovery of a new fact is usually easily reportable, and thus the news media also see science in terms of new discoveries.

Even V. Weisskopf, normally quite free of the usual hubris of the physicists, forgot himself recently sufficiently to claim that "the scientific world view is based upon the great discoveries of the nineteenth century concerning the nature of electricity and heat and the existence of atoms and molecules" (1977: 405), as if Darwin, Bernard, Mendel, and Freud (not to mention hundreds of other biologists) had not made a tremendous contribution to our scientific world view, indeed, perhaps a greater one than the physicists.

Lysenkoism and the tabula rasa teaching of behaviorism (and its Marxist followers) are just some examples. For all these reasons it is wrong to speak of philosophy of science when one means the philosophy of the physical sciences. The conviction of many physical scientists that all the insights of biology can be reduced to the laws of physics has led many biologists, in self-defense, to assert the autonomy of biology. Although this emancipation movement of the biologists has, quite naturally, encountered considerable resistance, not only among physical scientists but also among essentialism-committed philosophers, it has continued to gain in strength in recent decades.

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