By G. -B. Duchenne de Boulogne, R. Andrew Cuthbertson

In Mecanisme de l. a. Physionomie Humaine, the nice nineteenth-century French neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne mixed his intimate wisdom of facial anatomy along with his ability in images and services in utilizing electrical energy to stimulate person facial muscle mass to provide a desirable interpretation of the ways that the human face portrays feelings. This ebook used to be pivotal within the improvement of psychology and body structure because it marked the 1st time that images were used to demonstrate, and hence "prove," a sequence of experiments. Duchenne's booklet, which contained over a hundred unique photographic prints pasted into an accompanying Album, used to be infrequent, even if it first seemed in 1862. Duchenne was once an exceptional medical neurologist and during this research he utilized his huge, immense adventure in neurological examine to the query of the mechanism of human facial features. Duchenne has been little pointed out and little recognized during this century; his e-book has been almost unobtainable, and copies are available just a couple of libraries within the usa and Europe.

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Let us recognize here that the ingenious artifice employed by nature to these ends deserves our admiration. When we see a limited move*Traite du contraste simultane des couleurs. Principal facts from my electrophysiological experiments ment and recognize the perfect image of an emotion, it seems to us that the face has changed in an overall way. When we experience such illusions, it is by virtue of our organization, by virtue of a faculty we have possessed since birth. B. Isolated contractions that are incompletely expressive Of the muscles below the eyebrow, there are those that produce their own expression and influence facial expression in a general manner, but this expression is incomplete.

Combinations of primordial expressions may produce complex expressions and in their progress they are complemented by the successive appearance of the lines belonging to each primordial expression. These combinations of primordial expressions do not give perfect complex expressions except where they occur in accordance with the laws of nature. B. Combined contractions that are inexpressive It is rational to think that muscles that represent directly opposite emotions will not act synergistically and that their combined action will give only inexpressive contractions.

Such reasoning is clearly proven by my research. In my experiments I that could have been even longer and that we have; left in the disorder of alphabetic order. mockery abjectness drunkenness admiration (the first of emulation mourning the passions according enmity overwhelmed to Descartes) enthusiasm pain amour-propre envy pity anger esteem pride anguish evilness pusillanimous audacity fear rapture avarice fickleness recognition avidity fright regret baseness fury remorse boredom generosity repentance chagrin glory resilience (aggression) charity gluttony resolution cheerfulness greed sadness confidence hate scorn courage hope security crying humility self-satisfaction cupidity indignation sensuality curiosity jealousy shame joy defensiveness surprise desire lamentation temerity lasciviousness timidity desolation despair laughter vanity disagreement laziness veneration disdain love vengeance disgust magnanimity worry 30 The mechanism of human facial expression have established that it is always a single muscle that executes the fundamental movement, representing a movement dictated by the soul.

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