By Bruce Hapke

Reflectance and emittance spectroscopy are more and more vital instruments in distant sensing and feature been hired in latest planetary spacecraft missions. they're basically used to degree homes of disordered fabrics, in particular within the interpretation of distant observations of the surfaces of the Earth and different terrestrial planets. This booklet offers a quantitative therapy of the physics of the interplay of electromagnetic radiation with particulate media, resembling powders and soils. topics lined contain electromagnetic wave propagation, unmarried particle scattering, diffuse reflectance, thermal emittance and polarisation. This new version has been up-to-date to incorporate a quantitative remedy of the results of porosity, a close dialogue of the coherent backscatter competition influence, a quantitative therapy of simultaneous delivery of power in the medium through conduction and radiation, and lists of suitable databases and software program. this can be a vital reference for learn scientists, engineers and complicated scholars of planetary distant sensing.

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As a result, the system has several wide, continuous bands in which the electrons can exist, separated by gaps in which no solution of the wave equation is possible. 4 Transmission spectrum of quartz for the ordinary and extraordinary rays. The lines show classical dispersion theory fitted to the data. ) The highest energy band, in which all electron states are occupied, is called the valence band. The wave functions of electrons in the valence band generally are localized on discrete ions or atoms.

Finally, the various types of mechanisms by which light is absorbed are summarized. 1 Conductors: the drude model The simplest model for absorption and dispersion by a solid is that of Drude (1959). This model assumes that some of the electrons are free to move within the lattice, while the ions are assumed to remain fixed. These approximate the conditions within a metal. The average electric-charge density associated with the semifree electrons is equal to the average of that associated with the lattice ions, so that the total electric-charge density ρe = 0.

This gives ν02 − νm 0 2 2 region is narrow, ν0 − νm = (ν0 − νm )(ν0 + νm ) (ν0 − νm ) · 2ν0 . Thus, |ν0 − νm | = /2, and the full width of the region of anomalous dispersion is . At ν = ν0 , Ker = 1 and Kei = νp2 / ν0 ; Kei has a maximum at ν0 . Assuming ν0 , when ν ν0 , Ker 1 + νp2 /ν02 , which is constant, and Kei νp2 ν/ν04 , ν0 , Ker 1 − νp2 /ν 2 , and so that Kei goes to zero linearly with ν. When ν Kei νp2 /ν 3 . 10) for the Drude model. This result may be interpreted to imply that at high frequencies the electrons are excited into states where they are not bound to discrete atoms and, as in a conductor, are free to move about the lattice.

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