By Minoru Nagai

This can be the English version of a jap publication entitled "Learning Fluid Dynamics from Dolphins". The name derives from the truth that "dolphins swim too quick to be defined scientifically". the 1st individual to obviously describe this phenomenon was once the English biologist Sir James grey and this secret is understood between physicists and experts in marine engineering as "Gray's paradox" or just because the "mystery of dolphins". as well as dolphins, tuna, marlin and a few different fish also are well-known for swimming at terribly excessive speeds. Treating either dolphins and fish jointly within the similar identify is hard simply because either animals have very diversified taxonomy - dolphins belonging to oceanic mammals, and tuna and marlin belonging to teleostei fish. This e-book makes use of dolphins as symbolic animals that practice high-speed swimming. The publication is especially for readers who're attracted to know-how and technology and who wish to focus on technological occupations. It introduces the constructing historical past of fluid dynamics after which outlines the study heritage and the popularity of Gray's paradox. ultimately, Minoru Nagai's examine, via nearly 3 a long time, is reviewed.

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This is the principle of thrust generation. A fish pushes the surrounding fluid backward by wiggling its body and caudal fin, and thus obtains thrust. A bird pushes air backwards and downwards by flapping its wings, and thus obtains both thrust and lift simultaneously as a reaction to the air movement. It is easier to understand the concept of action and reaction by imaging a reader to jump up by giving a kick on the ground. The thrust and lift forces on an airplane have been described in Fig. 2, and the forces on a bird flying steadily are similar to those for an airplane.

However, the fact that the difference between both solutions of real and ideal fluids becomes significantly large is the critical basis of D'Alembert's paradox. 2 are photographs of the flow field made by a cylinder moving from right to left in a water tank. 1 was produced by Prandtl (Ludwig Prandtl: 1875 - 1953) and his disciple Tietjens. It can be seen that the pattern of stream lines behind the cylinder is completely different from that of an ideal fluid and of the dead-water region model. The experiments show large vortices downstream of the cylinder.

Another question arises: how is the propelling force acting on a fish or a bird obtained? The correct explanation for this problem was accomplished after the development of Newtonian dynamics, especially after the establishment of fluid dynamics. Using Newtonian dynamics (Newton's three laws expressing three aspects of one theorem for motions and forces), an explanation of thrust generation can be obtained from the second and the third laws. 2). On the other hand, according to the law of action and reaction, exactly the same magnitude of force acts on the fish or bird but it is oppositely directed.

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