By Samantha Lafferty

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THE REFORMS Mustafa Kemal undertook a range of sweeping reforms that transformed the country into a modern, Western-influenced secular state. Early Turkish Republic, 1923-1945 n 33 European dress, calendar and time systems were adopted. The traditional red fez was outlawed, as were veils for women. The Arabic alphabet was replaced with the Turkish alphabet and Latin script. Changes were made to marriage and women’s rights. Polygamy became illegal and by 1930 women had been granted the right to vote and hold office in municipalities.

The first Ottomans were nomadic chiefs, horsemen who won power on merit The Rise of the Ottoman Empire n 19 The first Ottoman State was founded at the beginning of the 14th century when Osman declared himself the leader of So—ut. Osman was a charismatic commander who attracted not only Turks to his army, but also impoverished Byzantine peasants and runaway slaves. The Ottoman state gathered pace under Osman’s son Orhan, who captured Iznik (Nicaea), Izmit (Nicomedia) and, in 1326, Bursa (Brusa), gaining control of much of northwest Anatolia.

5% and the country flirted with a debt default. 6 billion loan package from the IMF. Three years later, it took on a further $10 billion three-year package to fund restructuring. Since then, sweeping economic reforms and the possibility of EU membership made Turkey the star performer in the recent emergingmarkets boom. Buoyed by an equally stable government and fiscal policy, the Istanbul Stock Exchange jumped 400% between October 2002 and February 2006. Textile and car manufacturing, agriculture and energy are among the country’s most robust industries.

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